The Nobel Prize is five separate prizes, according to Sir Alfred Nobel’s will of 1895, are awarded to ”those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.”
Nobel Prizes are the most prestigious awards awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
Alfred Nobel a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite died in 1896. In his will, he bequeathed all of his “remaining realisable assets” to be used to establish five prizes which became known as “Nobel Prizes.” Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.
The prize ceremonies take place annually. Each recipient (known as a “laureate”) receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a monetary award.
Switzerland-based International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is the only 3-time recipient of the Nobel Prize, being conferred with Peace Prize in 1917, 1944, and 1963. Further, Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant were the first in the world and Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian to win noble prize in 1901 and 1913 respectively.
American scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian won the 2021 Nobel Prize for Medicine on Monday for the discovery of receptors in the skin that sense temperature and touch and could pave the way for new pain-killers.
Their work, carried out independently, has helped show how humans convert the physical impact from heat or touch into nerve impulses that allow us to “perceive and adapt to the world around us,” the Nobel Assembly at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute said.
“This knowledge is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of disease conditions, including chronic pain.”
By Adyasha Abhijeeta Dash